How many types of video editing are there?
Editing is one of the most interesting and rewarding parts of making a short film or video. It's where the story really comes together. Decisions you make about which shots to use, how you put them together, and how you use sound, will make a big difference to your movie. So here's a beginners' guide to basic editing principles. Looking for the Best Wedding Venue in Melbourne? Vines of the Yarra Valley is Melbourne's Iconic
The 21st century has seen an explosion of technology and platforms that have made it easier to create and distribute videos. With so many videos out there, it is Basic Video Editing Techniques Every Videographer Should Know is important to learn some basic video editing tips for beginners so that your video stands out.
Once you master the edit types and learn why each one is important in different circumstances, you can make your projects more entertaining and your editing more efficient, and you can create a whole editing style of your own that reflects your creative side. But first, you have to learn them. Here are the different types of cuts (and a couple of transitions) you should know.
Table of Contents
- 1 Linear Editing
- 2 Non-linear video editing
- 3 Simple Cutting
- 4 Bespoke editing
- 5 Review for editing
- 6 Editing based on a theme
- 7 Multi-source Editing
- 8 You Film We Edit
- 9 Extraction from a DVD for editing
- 10 Adding Voice Commentary
- 11 Film Editing
- 12 Editing for Art
- 13 Editing film from live events
- 14 Length Reduction Editing
- 15 Editing to Accentuate the Highlights
- 16 Photo Slideshows
- 17 End of Life Photomontage
- 18 Subtitling
- 19 Offline Editing
- 20 Online Editing
- 21 Live Editing
- 22 Compression. Reducing the size of your footage
- 23 Bit Rate. Reducing the size of your footage
- 24 Aspect ratio. Changing the dimension of your footage
- 25 Assemble Editing
- 26 Insert Editing
- 27 Initial Assembly
- 28 Rough Cut
- 29 Colour Correction and Colour Grading
- 30 Final Cut
The examples of editing below fall into what we call linear or time-line editing, working with the horizontal time axis, often reducing the overall length, as opposed to layer editing as in Adobe After Effects where you're dealing with the z-axis, from front to back. The objective for us in linear editing is to make a video more palatable, more digestible, shorter yes. We are often dealing with video of not necessarily the best quality, so the minimum is to remove the flagrant errors, and best case is to create an interesting short.
The higher the budget, the more time one can take, the better the image, the higher the quality, the better the story-line. But here we are often talking about re-editing an amateur film. Embarking on a professional short or feature film is another matter entirely. When a film is shot specifically for a montage, scenes can be re-shot. Editing is a different ball game when it's shot one-time.
Non-linear video editing
This type of video editing is done using computers and specialized editing software called NLEs (short for Non-Linear Editor). Non-linear editing is the standard form of editing today.
The process begins by copying raw video footage into a computer. This footage is then opened up in an editing program such as Adobe Premiere Pro and Final Cut.
The editor has full control over the editing process. He can create a new video file with different scenes, arrange them in any order he wants as well as insert and delete them if necessary.
Once the editing process is complete, the new video clip can be copied on a CD or USB memory stick. It can also be uploaded online.
Non-linear video editing is very popular these days and used by many companies to create brand new video footage quickly and easily.
Editing digitally transferred Super eight is different from bespoke editing since the accent on cutting is different. First, the film is generally more valuable as its older and there's less of it, although the quality of filming may not be so good. The first objective is to cut out the joins between the reels, generally every 3 1/2 minutes and then probably to do some colour correction.
We take out the worst of the transitions following VHS transfer. This becomes bespoke editing when its more than simple cutting. The first pass simple cut may be to remove whole sections, so that only say the wedding is retained, remove poor quality or unneeded sections such as snow, the floor, ceiling, inside of a bag or where the film is just unusable for video or sound.
We can take any source in any format and put it on a time-line. There can be as many different sources as you like, but generally, 4 or 5 is manageable. This enables you to collect multiple recordings of an event and edit them together. But by its nature, bespoke editing means made-to-measure. There are as many types of edit as there are types of event. And the type of edit depends on the amount of film source and the final objective.
One objective of editing is to reduce the overall duration. Say you recorded 10 hours of film, and you might want to reduce it down to perhaps 45 minutes. The technique then is about choosing the bits to leave and the bits to remove. Film transferred from analogue tends to be quite long – something to do with the period, people discovering filming and not always of very high quality. So cutting out the long bits is quite a priority.
Review for editing
We understand that many films have often not been seen for many years. We offer customers the possibility of reviewing a DVD of the transferred film and then bringing it back to us for simple editing to reorder the reels if they are out of chronological order. This service may be subject to a charge or not depending on the scope of the project.
To facilitate this process, we can add a visible time-code to the video to enable people to note the position at which edits should occur. This principle is possible for any project. We may record to DVD, add a time-code and then effect complex edits based on customer recommendations or requirements. We may supply recorded material to customers either on DVD or on YouTube, with or without time-code.
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Particularly useful if you don't know the content of your films before recording to digital.
Editing based on a theme
Editing can be based on a theme such as holidays or particular people, so that the challenge is to bring together moments which connect, are similar and related. Say all our holidays or Aunt Betty. Hand in hand with retaining the best clips is the choice of removing others and so making choices about what is good and what is not, based on some explicit or implicit criterion.
The most recognizable of themes are perhaps edits based on events such as a wedding or other family event, an outing, a holiday, a bikers meeting, a celebration, fête, school, professional or amateur play. Here reduction editing is about generally taking long events down to something more manageable, highlights, a teaser or summary.
Editing material from the Internet
We were delighted to work for the French John Fogarty fan club to create a series of DVDs for personal use. Each DVD contained around 30 numbers from John Fogarty, all of which were recorded from YouTube, inserted onto a time-line, image corrected and edited together. We can record material from any Internet site for use in your own edits such as music from Deezer or Mixcloud. If there is an audio track that you like, we can include it in your edit. Of course, if you have the original CD, vinyl or tape, we can capture that too to include in your video.
These are examples of what we call composition edits where we edit together material from diverse sources.
We can edit sources in both SD (720 x 576) and HD up to 1920 x 1068. We don't need to have filmed the material ourselves to edit your video. You can provide your video source to us in any format on any media. This may be of particular interest for those who film events which may wish to film the event themselves with several cameras, we can then take on just the editing according to customer criteria on multiple tracks, from multiple sources, varying formats, with or without voice commentary or added music.
You Film We Edit
The advantage here is to save expenditure on a camera operator for your private event. Indeed, you can ask your friends to film your wedding, for instance, and then we do the editing. We call this 3rd party editing since the material is shot by you, but has the advantage that if several people film the same moment, you may benefit from either a better shot or multiple good shots from different angles that can be cut together.
Extraction from a DVD for editing
It is possible even to edit material that has already been recorded to DVD. We simply extract and decompress it, edit and re-burn to DVD. This makes it possible to extract one or more sections from a DVD, retain them for editing and author them out to a new DVD. Your video should be of the same visual quality as it originally was on the DVD.
Adding Voice Commentary
You may wish to comment on your film edits, either because there was no original sound, as per Super 8 or simply to add dimension to your edit. We can do this for you, either by recording your voice and editing it at the appropriate moments or ourselves according to a script.
Adding voice commentary is a nice way of adding colour and meaning to your video and can enhance simply visual titles. Of course, you can also add titles to describe events, state the year of an event or the people present as a reminder, for posterity or simply for information or fun.
Editing may be more complex, depending on the theme or objective. For instance, we created a semi-documentary film edit of one hour based on 22 hours of material, filmed on four different types of a camera over the space of 2 years discussing the changes in the countryside.
The subject was centred around the person who brought us in, to follow his activities such as digging a well but also to talk about changes in the countryside, how life has changed—all unscripted, filmed on the hoof, without rehearsal, real-time. Events took place, and we just captured what went on. However, only later did we realize that there was a message buried in all the dialogue. So the challenge was to select and retain the important material and make a coherent subject. Not easy on zero budget.
Editing for Art
Without going into the detail of all the types of edit there are you could also distinguish artistic editing which is quite different again, has a specific objective, is quite probably scripted, prepared and seeks to film footage deliberately as part of a production.
Editing film from live events
Live spectacles are interesting to edit because of the real-time nature, whether theatre, dance or music since errors occur either on stage or in the filming. The editor is required to make choices to maintain flow. Need a Wedding Video Company for your special day? Look no further, Vines of the Yarra Valley have you covered.
Length Reduction Editing
Anti-tedium editing is about time-slicing to reduce the length of scenes, while keeping the essence of the mood, focusing on people, while trying to keep everyone in, reducing the boredom factor, without slash and burn.
For instance, if it's a holiday film, keeping each place visited, but reducing the time spent there: the shot of the church only needs 7 seconds, not 3 minutes. In a wedding film, similarly, we need to see the married couple, but we might keep just some of a long walk to the town hall, just so that people understand what is going on.
These montages are about making something new out of something old. The input footage is not planned perfect shots; it is generally a mix of all sorts of shots. The idea is to retain only what is good or essential. These edits are about taking souvenirs and making souvenir edits.
Editing to Accentuate the Highlights
Highlights editing is a variant of anti-tedium editing. The idea is to mark all the events of interest and cut everything to say 7 seconds. This means that everything decent is retained but just as a highlight. This can be difficult if the scene goes on, but involved hard choices. It creates a certain style of edit and can be useful when either there is relative liberty to cut and or when the subject has little meaning for the editor. The viewer gets a flavour of all events. The pieces still have to be joined and possibly ordered in order to create something reasonably aesthetic.
Photo slideshows are generally about retrospectives about happier occasions. People may focus on years, periods, holidays. We generally display a photo for between 4 and 6 seconds and include anything from paper photos, slides, reverse negatives, screenprints, digitized film up to HD film from phones. Any source is possible. Here once again, the criteria are the final length objective of the edit and the amount of material available.
End of Life Photomontage
Sometimes our edits are about sad events, even death. We have done one or two retrospective and photomontages for funerals. While not necessarily sophisticated, for the people concerned, they certainly have an effect when played at a funeral or memorial service.
Generally composed of photos and film from the life of the deceased, friends and family they may well be cobbled together in hurried circumstances because of the difficulty for the families doing that kind of work in between death and funeral. So they might be quite simple but just enough to remind people of favourite photos and music. It doesn't take much to evoke emotion in such circumstances.
We add subtitles to video as well, often for business customers. Still, it is possible to add subtitles to any video as long as transcription is possible and therefore that audio is audible.
Subtitles can be in original language (generally French) or translated into any language (for us English) and then re-pasted back into the video or retained simply as an SRT subtitle file to play with an appropriate viewer such as VLC.
Offline video editing is another technique that consists of making a copy of the raw video footage and compressing it to a smaller resolution.
The editor creates a duplicate of an existing raw video and compresses it into a format such as ProRes. This smaller resolution footage is called proxy footage.
The editor works with the proxy footage, making adjustments, adding/deleting clips, and so on.
When the editing process is done, the editor exports the project but allows the original raw video footage to replace the proxy footage.
This technique is usually used when the editor doesn't have a sufficiently capable machine to edit video clips in raw format.
As you probably already know, editing a 4K video clip requires a lot of processing power and most computers aren't equipped to do that.
Many beginner video editors don't have the necessary budget to invest in a more powerful machine yet, so they rely on offline cutting to achieve their goals.
The smaller resolution footage (proxy footage) is easier to work with and doesn't need a lot of computer resources.
The editor uses the proxy footage to edit video clips and exports the final version with the original, raw video footage. This technique is rarely used nowadays, but it is still a vital video editing process.
Online editing is merely the opposite of offline editing.
The editor doesn't create proxy footage. Instead, he works directly with the raw video footage to make adjustments, inserting or deleting clips, etc.
Online video editing is usually done on powerful machines equipped with fast processors and high RAM.
Live video editing usually happens during live video coverage. It's a more complicated process done by professional videographers and editors.
It implies using multiple video sources and cameras routed together in a single console that is displayed live on television.
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Compression. Reducing the size of your footage
Compression is a process that involves reducing the amount of data a video file has.
It is done to make the download and upload process more comfortable or to save space.
For example, you have a 1GB video file, but you need to upload it online where the video size limit is 200MB. You use compression to reduce the size of the video without deleting scenes or making other adjustments.
Bit Rate. Reducing the size of your footage
Bit rate refers to the amount of data stored in each second of the video.
It is usually measured in kilobits per second or kbps. The more data is stored in each second; the more detailed the images will be. At the same time, a video with a higher bit rate will occupy more space on a disk.
The compression technique radically reduces the bit rate of a video to make it fit a certain size. Although it can take time to compress a video, it is an excellent method of saving disk space.
Aspect ratio. Changing the dimension of your footage
Aspect ratio is a common term found in video and image editing.
It refers to the dimensions of a particular image or video files such as the height and width.
The most common aspect ratios used are 4:3 or 16:9. The first number always refers to the height while the second one refers to the width.
Computers, TVs, and laptops which use a wide aspect ratio such as 16:9 or 21:9 are more suitable for watching movies and video clips. On the other hand, screens with a 4:3 ratio are usually more suitable for document reading.
Assemble video editing is a rare type of editing which consists of putting together a series of video clips without any transitions between them.
The video clips are "glued" together in a linear fashion, without adding smoothing effects or visual improvements. It is also known as punch-and-crunch editing.
Insert video editing is a more sophisticated video editing process that implies adding new video clips into existing video footage.
This technique gives the editor more control when creating a new project, in comparison with assembling editing.
For example, let's say that you want to add a video clip over video footage of someone speaking. If you do this with assembling editing, the result looks unpolished, and the new video footage will also replace the audio track.
If you do it with insert editing, it creates clear beginning and endpoints, and you can preserve the original audio footage. The ending result is a more polished product that has a more powerful visual impact.
Initial video assembly is the first stage in a video editing process. It involves arranging the video clips from the order they have been filmed to the order they are displayed in the final cut (end product).
A rough cut is the second stage of a video editing process and usually a very complex one.
It involves trimming video shots and adding titles, graphics, and video effects. The audio soundtrack is still there, but not yet polished. The colours of the video during this stage are also unmatched and require additional improvement.
Colour Correction and Colour Grading
The last step before a video is released usually some kind of colour correction.
Colour correction is done to match the colours of the different shots used in the film, which might have been recorded at various locations, at different lighting conditions, and with different cameras.
The colour temperature can influence the viewer's mood and appreciation of the video clip. The colour temperature refers to the tint of the colour in a video clip. It is measured in Kelvin, and it can range from cold to warm.
For example, cold colour temperatures usually tend to have a blue tint, while hot colour temperatures tend to reach more towards red and orange.
The final cut is the third stage of a video editing process. The video clips and audio tracks are polished, and final adjustments and arrangements made.
The audio tracks and sound effects might still need improvements, and this is done during the mixing process by a professional sound editor.
The last thing I'll say about types of edits is that you can experiment by using multiple cuts at the same time. Now you know more about video editing than most people, and as you can see, it's not that difficult to understand.
Video editing is a logical process, and once you learn the ropes, it can be highly entertaining to do it as a hobby or for a living!